By John Peterson
Kharia, spoken in central-eastern India, is a member of the southern department of the Munda relatives, which kinds the western department of the Austro-Asiatic phylum, stretching from principal India to Vietnam. the current research presents the main huge description of Kharia thus far and covers all significant components of the grammar. Of specific curiosity within the number of Kharia defined right here, is that there's no proof for assuming the lifestyles of parts-of-speech, reminiscent of noun, adjective and verb. fairly features reminiscent of reference, amendment and predication are expressed by way of one among syntactic buildings, noted the following as 'syntagmas'. the quantity might be of equivalent curiosity to common linguists from the fields of typology, linguistic conception, areal linguistics, Munda linguistics in addition to South Asianists quite often.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Kharia (Brill's Studies in South and Southwest Asian Languages)
Vowel length is not indicated in Devanagari for /o/ and /e/. 15 The various systems in current use only differ from one another in one respect: The means of representing the glottal stop and pre-glottalized consonsants, for which there are no symbols in the Devanagari script. There are four strategies that this author is aware of for dealing with these sounds, which while not phonemic (except for the glottal stop, which is marginally phonemic), are nevertheless very prominent features of the spoken language.
Cative, referential or attributive function, where appropriate. 20 CHAP1ERONE Although almost all Kharia would thus probably agree that Devanagari is the proper medium for writing their language, there is as yet no generally accepted standard orthography, neither 1. for the representation of certain sounds, particularly the glottal stop and the pre-glottalized consonants, nor 2. for the question of when to write "words" together or separately. The following presents a brief overview of the script and the issues involved.
1. 3 where among other things it is argued that there is no copula in Kharia in the usual sense of the term but rather, what translates as some form of the copula ("be") in English and many other languages is best viewed as a marker of qualitative predication. moGRAPHY AND nm SYsTEM oF TRANSLITERATION USED HERE Kharia has traditionally only rarely been used in its written form: Although most Dudh Kharia are literate, with some estimates running as high as over 90%, since education is generally in English or Hindi medium and since Hindi is spoken by virtually all Kharia, when the need arises to put something down in writing, this has traditionally been done in Hindi.
A Grammar of Kharia (Brill's Studies in South and Southwest Asian Languages) by John Peterson