Download PDF by Bill Davey, Clive Mathews: A Model for Information Support of Environmental Management

By Bill Davey, Clive Mathews

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Extra info for A Model for Information Support of Environmental Management Systems

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38 Regulation (also called command-and-control instruments) comprises a range of direct regulations such as standards, bans, permits, zoning use restrictions, etc. In the OEeD's (1994a: 15) definition, direct regulations are "institutional measures aimed at directly influencing the environmental performance of polluters by regulating processes or products used, by abandoning or limiting the discharge of certain pollutants, and/or by restricting activities to certain, times, areas, etc". Vedung (1995: 9) puts it slightly differently: "Regulations are measures undertaken by governmental units to influence people by means of formulated rules and directives which mandate receivers to act in accordance with what is ordered in these rules and directives".

In sum, a problem is not a given fact but a socio-political construct (Hoppe and Peterse, 1993). What is the problem about? What values are at stake? What facts are the relevant ones? These are questions that arise when a problem is structured. Problem structuring has important implications for the policy-making process because "[t]he name for a problem ( ... ) creates beliefs about what conditions public policy can change and which it cannot touch" (Edelman, 1977: 25-26) and "the way people classify a problem determines the way they will attempt to resolve it" (Dunn, 1981: 98).

Thus, it is clear that an issue may be brought to agenda in different ways. Cobb et al. (1976: 126-128) distinguish between three agenda-building models: (1) The outside initiative model, which is the process in which a non-governmental organization brings up an issue to reach the public agenda and finally the formal agenda. (2) The mobilization model. which describes a situation where an issue is initiated inside the government (thus automatically reaches the formal agenda) but where successful implementation requires that the issue also be placed on the public agenda.

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A Model for Information Support of Environmental Management Systems by Bill Davey, Clive Mathews

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