By Harry Fawcett Buckley
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Additional info for A short history of physics,
The other form is that of one or more moving objects whose paths create a closed shape. An example of the latter is an electron that is part of an atom. In this case, structural closure can be seen to occur in two ways. (1) When the electron returns to a point it was at before, thus closing a loop and (2) the set of its possible locations creates a sphere known as the electron shell, which completely surrounds the nucleus. Due to Pauli’s exclusion principle, the electron shell has physical relevance, because the electron shells of two atoms experience increasing resistance when their electron orbits approach each other and overlap.
1 and the steps in the table are explained in an accessible way in the accompanying text. For additional information on this topic the reader is referred to earlier publications on this subject (Jagers op Akkerhuis and van Straalen 1999; Jagers op Akkerhuis 2010a, pp. 37–55). 1, one ﬁnds all the kinds of operators, and the dual closure (functional and structural) on which they are based. The table also includes a distinction between the structural closure called interface and the functional closure called hypercycle.
Imagine a set of three objects: a bicycle, an apple and a molecule. The relationships between these objects can be many, but one can for example imagine that the bicycle rides over the apple and crushes it, that the apple releases a molecule of a volatile apple-oil, and that this oil-molecule condenses onto the bicycle. In principle, the relationships from the bicycle, to the apple, to the molecule, to the bicycle can be viewed as representing a closure. In an example like this, however, both the objects and the relationships between the objects vary, and it is hard to identify an overall logic which binds the diverse elements together.
A short history of physics, by Harry Fawcett Buckley