By Stefano Basagni; et al
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Additional info for Ad hoc networking
11) [161–163], or by finding intervals during which the network interface does not need to be listening . For example, while a node transmits a packet, the other nodes within the same interference and carrier sensing range must remain silent. Therefore, these nodes can sleep with little or no impact on system behavior. Other strategies have been developed to achieve energy conservation at the overall network level in addition to the node level strategies mentioned above. For example, when a region is dense in terms of nodes, only a small number of them need to be turned on in order to forward the traffic so that the overall network lifetime is optimized.
For large-scale networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes, in which layering and partitioning are essential in ensuring network performance, structure-based or hybrid protocols are more appropriate. Overall, a good approach in routing protocol design might come from hybrid routing protocols; for example, by using proactive protocols in local zones, while using reactive protocols between zones (ZRP), by using location-aware routing for nodes over long distances when the forwarding node and the receiver are far away, or by incorporating a hierarchical clustering algorithm to AODV to increase scalability.
In general, both AODV and DSR work well in small-to-medium-sized networks with moderate mobility. TORA is another source-initiated on-demand routing protocol, built on the concept of link reversal  of Directed Acyclic Graph (ACG). In addition to being loop-free and bandwidth-efficient, TORA has the property of being highly adaptive and quick in route repair during link failure, while providing multiple routes for any desired source/destination pair. These features make it especially suitable for large highly dynamic mobile ad hoc environments with dense populations of nodes.
Ad hoc networking by Stefano Basagni; et al