By Pierre Kobel, Pranvera Këllezi, Bruce Kilpatrick
The e-book offers an research of the grocery retail industry in a really huge variety of international locations with a global file written through an economist. the second one a part of the publication deals the research of legal responsibility concerns in terms of non-compliance with CSRs with a global file through a British barrister. either subject matters are very timely.
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Extra info for Antitrust in the Groceries Sector & Liability Issues in Relation to Corporate Social Responsibility
In a ﬁnal group of countries,42 there are speciﬁc provisions concerning the abuse of buying power. In these countries, it is thus not necessary to show that a ﬁrm has a dominant position to be able to control its behavior on the buying side. As a result, the prohibition of buying power is different in nature from what it is in the previous groups of countries because it is clearly aimed at restoring fairness in vertical transactions rather than achieving competitive equilibrium of the market. 2 Definition of Buyer Power Except for the Netherlands and Bulgaria, which deﬁne buying power as the ability of a ﬁrm to distort competition on the upstream market, buying power on the part of the seller is deﬁned in most other countries as either a situation where the suppliers of the ﬁrm having buyer power have no economic alternative but to deal with the buyer or a situation where a buyer could disproportionately hurt its suppliers if it stopped dealing with them.
Particular examples of retrospective conduct that the Competition Commission identiﬁed included imposing price changes on suppliers after goods had been ordered or delivered or requiring them to contribute to the costs of promotions that had not been agreed in advance. Examples of excessive risk transfer giving rise to moral hazard included the practice of making suppliers liable for losses arising from goods being lost or stolen in store. ” Such a criterion seems to be both vague and economically dubious.
However, very few cases of pure horizontal collusion among retailers were reported. On the contrary, in some countries such as the Netherlands, the competition authority considers that there is very active price competition among large-scale retailers and that consumers beneﬁt from this active competition. The report concerning the United States similarly states that for at least 30 years, cartel enforcement in the domestic food sector has no longer been necessary as there do not seem to have been any prosecutions against groceries for cartel activity, since 1972, when the US DOJ prosecuted a group of small, independent grocers that organized to compete against larger chains.
Antitrust in the Groceries Sector & Liability Issues in Relation to Corporate Social Responsibility by Pierre Kobel, Pranvera Këllezi, Bruce Kilpatrick