By Richard A. Behr
Glass is more and more getting used as a structural fabric in new constructions. The structural envelope may perhaps consist both solely or partly of glass, and this development to eschew conventional fabrics resembling brick and urban for steel-framed, glass clad structures offers inherent difficulties. a tremendous factor is the functionality of glazing in the course of earthquakes and severe climatic occasions, akin to windstorms and heavy snow lots. This authoritative booklet reports the present state-of-the artwork in glass and glazing know-how to withstand failure because of those average occasions.
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Additional info for Architectural Glass to Resist Seismic and Extreme Climatic Events
16 show some photographs of glass damage in past earthquakes. The damage in recent earthquakes shows that even under minor and moderate events, glass breakage can occur. 2 in the San Francisco bay area caused extensive glass damage to some buildings (SFGATE, 2007). 16 shows the aluminum mullion attached to the wall, which has likely provided a rigid support for the mullion. In general, more ﬂexible supports allow more glazing frame deformation and are less likely to damage the glass. org/ oaklandhistory/earthquake89).
0 a A lower value for ap is permitted where justiﬁed by detailed dynamic analyses. 0. 0 is for rigid components and rigidly attached components. 5 is for ﬂexible components and ﬂexibly attached components. b Components mounted on vibration isolators shall have a bumper restraint or snubber in each horizontal direction. 25 in. 25 in, the design force is permitted to be taken as FP. on a dynamic analysis where the building and nonstructural component are analyzed together in a single model. The Fp force is primarily used for design anchorage and bracing of the component.
Where Dp = relative seismic displacement that the component must be designed to accommodate δxA = deﬂection at building level x determined by elastic analysis, which includes the Cd multiplier but excludes the I factor for the building δyA = deﬂection at building level y determined by elastic analysis, which includes the Cd multiplier but excludes the I factor for the building hx = height of level x where the upper connection point is attached hy = height of level y where the lower connection point is attached hsx = story height of the structure used to determine allowable story drift in Chapter 12 of ASCE 7 ΔaA = allowable story drift of the structure as deﬁned in Chapter 12 of ASCE 7 (see Table 1.
Architectural Glass to Resist Seismic and Extreme Climatic Events by Richard A. Behr