By John Bowers
Sequence ahead -- Preface -- 1. advent and evaluate -- 2. Passive -- three. Affectee arguments -- four. Grammatical functionality altering morphology -- five. Derived nominals -- 6. end -- Appendix A. A compositional semantics for argument heads -- Appendix B. First program of merge -- Notes -- References -- Index.
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A present was bought for Maryi by heri . Passive 35 Bound-Variable Anaphora (7) a. Money was given to every student by his mother. b. The judge was shown every horse by its trainer. c. A book was thrown at every student by his professor. d. A present was received from every employee by his boss. e. The judge was hit with every pet by its owner. f. A present was bought for every mother by her son. (8) a. b. c. d. e. f. Money was given to his mother by every student. The judges were shown his horse by every trainer.
Morphologically, [Àact] Voi is spelled out as the past participial morpheme -EN. 31 The presence of a full lexical item in Pr prevents the root from raising any further, hence it remains in Voi, where it picks up the passive participial morphology -EN. Since the only active DP is the Th-phrase the ball, it must move ﬁrst to Spec,Voi to 26 Chapter 1 satisfy the EPP feature of Voi, then to Spec,Pr to satisfy its EPP feature. Its Case feature is then valued nom by the probe in T and it moves ﬁnally to Spec,T.
2 Passive In this chapter I develop in more detail the approach to the passive outlined in chapter 1. I ﬁrst examine the empirical basis for my solution to the problem of the passive by-phrase, arguing that the data provide strong support for my claim that the argument position from which both the subject of actives and the by-phrase of passives derive is merged before any other arguments or quasi-arguments. Next, I examine critically an attempt by Collins (2005) to solve the problem of the passive byphrase within the current theory of argument structure and compare it to my approach.
Arguments as relations / by John Bowers